The island is world famous for being one of the five Blue Zones, places where people reach extraordinary high ages. The island has the highest population of 90 and older in the world.
- Agios Kyrikos, the capital town, built on a hillside
- Evdilos, the 2nd-biggest settlement, an intensely traditional village, also a main port town
- Armenistis has pleasant beaches and the majority of accommodations
- Christos Raches, the village that comes alive at 8 pm when all the shops open
The island will soon become nearly autonomous regarding energy consumption by using almost exclusively "Green Energy". The construction of the Pilot Hybrid Hydro-Electric Plant, the environmentally friendly power production plant using renewable energy sources in Europe, is expected to be completed in 2010 and provide 100% of the electricity in the winter months and 70% in the summer months.
The population is about 8,312 (census of 2001), with an area of 660km².